Advertisement

Frailty

A Multidimensional Biopsychosocial Syndrome
Published:October 27, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2022.04.006

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Medical Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Dent E.
        • Martin F.C.
        • Bergman H.
        • et al.
        Management of frailty: opportunities, challenges, and future directions.
        Lancet. 2019; 394: 1376-1386
        • de Breij S.
        • van Hout H.P.J.
        • de Bruin S.R.
        • et al.
        Predictors of frailty and vitality in older adults aged 75 years and over: results from the longitudinal aging study amsterdam.
        Gerontology. 2021; 67: 69-77
        • Hoogendijk E.O.
        • Afilalo J.
        • Ensrud K.E.
        • et al.
        Frailty: implications for clinical practice and public health.
        Lancet. 2019; 394: 1365-1375
        • Boers M.
        • Cruz Jentoft A.J.
        A new concept of health can improve the definition of frailty.
        Calcified Tissue Int. 2015; 97: 429-431
        • Cesari M.
        • Gambassi G.
        • Abellan van Kan G.
        • et al.
        The frailty phenotype and the frailty index: different instruments for different purposes.
        Age and Ageing. 2014; 43: 10-12
        • Rockwood K.
        • Mitnitski A.
        Frailty in relation to the accumulation of deficits.
        J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007; 62: 722-727
        • Fried L.P.
        • Tangen C.M.
        • Walston J.
        • et al.
        Frailty in Older Adults: Evidence for a Phenotype.
        J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56: M146-M157
        • Panza F.
        • Lozupone M.
        • Solfrizzi V.
        • et al.
        Different cognitive frailty models and health-and cognitive-related outcomes in older age: from epidemiology to prevention.
        J Alzheimer’s Dis. 2018; 62: 993-1012
        • Kelaiditi E.
        • Cesari M.
        • Canevelli M.
        • et al.
        Cognitive frailty: Rational and definition from an (I.A.N.A./I.A.G.G.) International Consensus Group.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2013; 17: 726-734
        • Ruan Q.
        • Xiao F.
        • Gong K.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of cognitive frailty phenotypes and associated factors in a community-dwelling elderly population.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2020; 24: 172-180
        • Bunt S.
        • Steverink N.
        • Olthof J.
        • et al.
        Social frailty in older adults: a scoping review.
        Eur J Ageing. 2017; 14: 323-334
        • Mckelvie M.
        • Donnelly M.
        • O’Reilly D.
        • et al.
        P35 Psychological frailty and social frailty in older adults: a scoping review.
        BMJ. 2021; (A58.1-A58)https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2021-ssmabstracts.123
        • Brown P.J.
        • Rutherford B.R.
        • Yaffe K.
        • et al.
        The depressed frail phenotype: the clinical manifestation of increased biological aging.
        Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016; 24: 1084-1094
        • Morley J.E.
        • Malmstrom T.K.
        • Miller D.K.
        A simple frailty questionnaire (FRAIL) predicts outcomes in middle aged African Americans.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2012; 16: 601-608
        • Mitnitski A.B.
        • Mogilner A.J.
        • Rockwood K.
        Accumulation of deficits as a proxy measure of aging.
        Sci World J. 2001; 1: 323-336
        • Rolfson D.B.
        • Majumdar S.R.
        • Tsuyuki R.T.
        • et al.
        Validity and reliability of the Edmonton Frail Scale.
        Age and Ageing. 2006; 35: 526-529
        • Gobbens R.J.J.
        • van Assen M.A.L.M.
        • Luijkx K.G.
        • et al.
        The Tilburg frailty indicator: psychometric properties.
        J Am Med Directors Assoc. 2010; 11: 344-355
        • Borson S.
        • Scanlan J.
        • Brush M.
        • et al.
        The Mini-Cog: a cognitive ‘vital signs’ measure for dementia screening in multi-lingual elderly.
        Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000; 15: 1021-1027
        • Folstein M.F.
        • Folstein S.E.
        • McHugh P.R.
        Mini-mental state.” A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.
        J Psychiatr Res. 1975; 12: 189-198
        • Teng E.L.
        • Chui H.C.
        The Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 1987; 48: 314-318
        • Nasreddine Z.S.
        • Phillips N.A.
        • Bédirian V.
        • et al.
        The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53: 695-699
        • Coblentz J.M.
        Presenile dementia.
        Arch Neurol. 1973; 29: 299
        • Rosen W.G.
        • Mohs R.C.
        • Davis K.L.
        A new rating scale for Alzheimer’s disease.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1984; 141: 1356-1364
        • Moms J.C.
        • Heyman A.
        • Mohs R.C.
        • et al.
        The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). Part I. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer’s disease.
        Neurology. 1989; 39: 1159
        • Rami L.
        • Mollica M.A.
        • García-Sanchez C.
        • et al.
        The Subjective Cognitive Decline Questionnaire (SCD-Q): a validation study.
        J Alzheimer’s Dis. 2014; 41: 453-466
        • Pashmdarfard M.
        • Azad A.
        Assessment tools to evaluate activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults: A systematic review.
        Med J Islamic Republic Iran. 2020; 34
        • Yesavage J.A.
        • Brink T.L.
        • Rose T.L.
        • et al.
        Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report.
        J Psychiatr Res. 1982; 17: 37-49
        • Radloff L.S.
        The CES-D Scale.
        Appl Psychol Meas. 1977; 1: 385-401
        • Malmstrom T.K.
        • Morley J.E.
        Frailty and cognition: Linking two common syndromes in older persons.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2013; 17: 723-725
        • Tsutsumimoto K.
        • Doi T.
        • Makizako H.
        • et al.
        Social frailty has a stronger impact on the onset of depressive symptoms than physical frailty or cognitive impairment: a 4-year follow-up longitudinal cohort study.
        J Am Med Directors Assoc. 2018; 19: 504-510
        • Siriwardhana D.D.
        • Hardoon S.
        • Rait G.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of frailty and prefrailty among community-dwelling older adults in low-income and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        BMJ Open. 2018; 8https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018195
        • Delrieu J.
        • Andrieu S.
        • Pahor M.
        • et al.
        Neuropsychological profile of “cognitive frailty” subjects in MAPT study.
        J Prev Alzheimer’s Dis. 2016; : 1-9https://doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2016.94
        • Ellwood A.
        • Quinn C.
        • Mountain G.
        Psychological and social factors associated with coexisting frailty and cognitive impairment: a systematic review.
        Res Aging. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1177/01640275211045603
        • Yamada M.
        • Arai H.
        Social Frailty Predicts Incident Disability and Mortality Among Community-Dwelling Japanese Older Adults.
        J Am Med Directors Assoc. 2018; 19: 1099-1103
        • Vaughan L.
        • Corbin A.L.
        • Goveas J.S.
        Depression and frailty in later life: A systematic review.
        Clin Interventions Aging. 2015; 10: 1947-1958
        • Clegg A.
        • Young J.
        • Iliffe S.
        • et al.
        Frailty in elderly people.
        Lancet. 2013; 381: 752-762
        • Sukkriang N.
        • Punsawad C.
        Comparison of geriatric assessment tools for frailty among community elderly.
        Heliyon. 2020; 6https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04797
        • Tariq S.H.
        • Tumosa N.
        • Chibnall J.T.
        • et al.
        Comparison of the saint louis university mental status examination and the mini-mental state examination for detecting dementia and mild neurocognitive disorder—a pilot study.
        Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006; 14: 900-910
        • Rabin L.A.
        • Wang C.
        • Mogle J.A.
        • et al.
        An approach to classifying subjective cognitive decline in community-dwelling elders.
        Alzheimer’s Demen Diagn Assess Dis Monit. 2020; 12
        • Teo N.
        • Yeo P.S.
        • Gao Q.
        • et al.
        A bio-psycho-social approach for frailty amongst Singaporean Chinese community-dwelling older adults-evidence from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study.
        BMC Geriatr. 2019; 19
        • Jung H.
        • Kim M.
        • Lee Y.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of physical frailty and its multidimensional risk factors in Korean community-dwelling older adults: Findings from Korean frailty and aging cohort study.
        Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17: 1-20
        • Fabrício D. de M.
        • Chagas M.H.N.
        • Diniz B.S.
        Frailty and cognitive decline.
        Translational Res. 2020; 221: 58-64
        • Vatanabe I.P.
        • Pedroso R.V.
        • Teles R.H.G.
        • et al.
        A systematic review and meta-analysis on cognitive frailty in community-dwelling older adults: risk and associated factors.
        Aging Ment Health. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2021.1884844
        • Feng Z.
        • Lugtenberg M.
        • Franse C.
        • et al.
        Risk factors and protective factors associated with incident or increase of frailty among community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review of longitudinal studies.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178383
        • Facal D.
        • Burgo C.
        • Spuch C.
        • et al.
        Cognitive frailty: an update.
        Front Psychol. 2021; 12https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.813398
        • Kulmala J.
        • Nykänen I.
        • Mänty M.
        • et al.
        Association between frailty and dementia: a population-based study.
        Gerontology. 2014; 60: 16-21
        • Kim S.
        • Park J.L.
        • Hwang H.S.
        • et al.
        Correlation between frailty and cognitive function in non-demented community dwelling older koreans.
        Korean J Fam Med. 2014; 35: 309
        • Robertson D.A.
        • Savva G.M.
        • Kenny R.A.
        Frailty and cognitive impairment-A review of the evidence and causal mechanisms.
        Ageing Res Rev. 2013; 12: 840-851
        • Jacobs J.M.
        • Cohen A.
        • Ein-Mor E.
        • et al.
        Frailty, cognitive impairment and mortality among the oldest old.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2011; 15: 678-682
        • St. John P.D.
        • Tyas S.L.
        • Griffith L.E.
        • et al.
        The cumulative effect of frailty and cognition on mortality – results of a prospective cohort study.
        Int Psychogeriatrics. 2017; 29: 535-543
        • Bu Z.H.
        • Huang A le
        • Xue M.T.
        • et al.
        Cognitive frailty as a predictor of adverse outcomes among older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Brain Behav. 2021; 11https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1926
        • Xie B.
        • Ma C.
        • Chen Y.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and risk factors of the co-occurrence of physical frailty and cognitive impairment in Chinese community-dwelling older adults.
        Health Soc Care Community. 2021; 29: 294-303
        • Gill T.M.
        • Gahbauer E.A.
        • Allore H.G.
        • et al.
        Transitions between frailty states among community-living older persons.
        Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 418-423
        • Trevisan C.
        • Veronese N.
        • Maggi S.
        • et al.
        Factors influencing transitions between frailty states in elderly adults: the Progetto Veneto Anziani longitudinal study.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017; 65: 179-184
        • Pollack L.R.
        • Litwack-Harrison S.
        • Cawthon P.M.
        • et al.
        Patterns and predictors of frailty transitions in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men study.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017; 65: 2473-2479
        • Qui Y.
        • Li G.
        • Wang X.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of cognitive frailty among community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Int J Nurs Stud. 2022; 125: 104112