Advertisement

Fire and Darkness: On the Assessment and Management of Bipolar Disorder

  • Katerina Nikolitch
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Box 400, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada

    Institute for Mental Health Research, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Gayatri Saraf
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Box 400, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Marco Solmi
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Box 400, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada

    School of Epidemiology and Public Health, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany
    Search for articles by this author
  • Kurt Kroenke
    Affiliations
    Indiana University School of Medicine and Regenstrief Institute, 1101 W 10th St, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jess G. Fiedorowicz
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Department of Psychiatry, The University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Box 400, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada

    School of Epidemiology and Public Health, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
Published:October 27, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2022.04.002

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Medical Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Merikangas K.R.
        • Akiskal H.S.
        • Angst J.
        • et al.
        Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey replication.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007; 64: 543-552
        • Merikangas K.R.
        • Jin R.
        • He J.P.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder in the world mental health survey initiative.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011; 68: 241-251
        • Moreira A.L.R.
        • Van Meter A.
        • Genzlinger J.
        • et al.
        Review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of adult bipolar disorder. Meta-analysis research support, Non-U.S. Gov't.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2017; 78: e1259-e1269
        • Rowland T.A.
        • Marwaha S.
        Epidemiology and risk factors for bipolar disorder.
        Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2018; 8: 251-269
        • Blanco C.
        • Compton W.M.
        • Saha T.D.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of DSM-5 bipolar I disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - III. Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural.
        J Psychiatr Res. 2017; 84: 310-317
        • Liu Y.
        • Blackwood D.H.
        • Caesar S.
        • et al.
        Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. Letter Meta-Analysis Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't.
        Mol Psychiatry. 2011; 16: 2-4
        • Coryell W.
        • Endicott J.
        • Reich T.
        • et al.
        A family study of bipolar II disorder.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1984; 145: 49-54
        • Coryell W.
        • Keller M.
        • Endicott J.
        • et al.
        Bipolar II illness: course and outcome over a five-year period.
        Psychol Med. 1989; 19: 129-141
        • Fornaro M.
        • Anastasia A.
        • Novello S.
        • et al.
        Incidence, prevalence and clinical correlates of antidepressant-emergent mania in bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta-Analysis Systematic Review.
        Bipolar Disord. 2018; 20: 195-227
        • Gore F.M.
        • Bloem P.J.
        • Patton G.C.
        • et al.
        Global burden of disease in young people aged 10-24 years: a systematic analysis.
        Lancet. 2011; 377: 2093-2102https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60512-6
        • Weiner M.
        • Warren L.
        • Fiedorowicz J.G.
        Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in bipolar disorder. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't.
        Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2011; 23: 40-47
        • Laursen T.M.
        Life expectancy among persons with schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder.
        Schizophr Res. 2011; 131: 101-104
        • Nordentoft M.
        • Wahlbeck K.
        • Hällgren J.
        • et al.
        Excess mortality, causes of death and life expectancy in 270,770 patients with recent onset of mental disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden.
        PLoS One. 2013; 8: e55176
        • Solomon D.A.
        • Leon A.C.
        • Endicott J.
        • et al.
        Unipolar mania over the course of a 20-year follow-up study. Comparative Study Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160: 2049-2051
        • Fiedorowicz J.G.
        • Solomon D.A.
        • Endicott J.
        • et al.
        Manic/hypomanic symptom burden and cardiovascular mortality in bipolar disorder.
        Psychosom Med. 2009; 71: 598-606
        • Smoller J.W.
        • Finn C.T.
        Family, twin, and adoption studies of bipolar disorder.
        Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2003; 123c: 48-58
        • Johansson V.
        • Kuja-Halkola R.
        • Cannon T.D.
        • et al.
        A population-based heritability estimate of bipolar disorder – in a Swedish twin sample.
        Psychiatry Res. 2019; 278: 180-187
        • Fabbri C.
        The role of genetics in bipolar disorder.
        in: Young A.H. Juruena M.F. Bipolar disorder: from neuroscience to treatment. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland2021: 41-60
        • Mullins N.
        • Forstner A.J.
        • O’Connell K.S.
        • et al.
        Genome-wide association study of more than 40,000 bipolar disorder cases provides new insights into the underlying biology.
        Nat Genet. 2021; 53: 817-829
        • Cegla-Schvartzman F.
        • Ovejero S.
        • Lopez-Castroma J.
        • et al.
        Diagnostic stability in bipolar disorder: a follow-up study in 130,000 patient-years. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2021; 82: 14
        • Chilakamarri J.K.
        • Filkowski M.M.
        • Ghaemi S.N.
        Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: a comparison with ADHD and major depressive disorder.
        Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2011; 23: 25-29
        • Zimmerman M.
        • Ruggero C.J.
        • Chelminski I.
        • et al.
        Psychiatric diagnoses in patients previously overdiagnosed with bipolar disorder.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2010; 71: 26-31
        • Hirschfeld R.M.A.
        • Williams J.B.W.
        • Spitzer R.L.
        • et al.
        Development and validation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: the Mood Disorder Questionnaire.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2000; 157: 1873-1875
        • Nassir Ghaemi S.
        • Miller C.J.
        • Berv D.A.
        • et al.
        Sensitivity and specificity of a new bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale.
        J Affect Disord. 2005; 84: 273-277
        • Phelps J.R.
        • Ghaemi S.N.
        Improving the diagnosis of bipolar disorder: predictive value of screening tests.
        J Affective Disord. 2006; 92: 141-148
        • Kivilcim Y.
        • Altintas M.
        • Domac F.M.
        • et al.
        Screening for bipolar disorder among migraineurs: the impact of migraine–bipolar disorder comorbidity on disease characteristics.
        Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017; 13: 631-641
        • Joseph B.
        • Nandakumar A.L.
        • Ahmed A.T.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of bipolar disorder in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta-Analysis Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review Systematic Review.
        Evidence-Based Ment Health. 2021; 24: 88-94
        • Tzur Bitan D.
        • Berzin D.
        • Cohen A.
        Hidradenitis suppurativa and bipolar disorders: a population-based study.
        Dermatology. 2020; 236: 298-304
        • Su V.Y.-F.
        • Hu L.-Y.
        • Yeh C.-M.
        • et al.
        Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with increased risk of bipolar disorder.
        Chronic Respir Dis. 2017; 14: 151-160
        • McIntyre R.S.
        • l M.D.
        • Masand P.S.
        • et al.
        The Rapid Mood Screener (RMS): a novel and pragmatic screener for bipolar I disorder.
        Curr Med Res Opin. 2021; 37: 135-144
        • Manning J.S.
        Tools to improve differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder in primary care.
        Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2010; 12: 17-22
        • Mitchell P.B.
        • Malhi G.S.
        Bipolar depression: phenomenological overview and clinical characteristics.
        Bipolar Disord. 2004; 6: 530-539
        • Motovsky B.
        • Pecenak J.
        Psychopathological characteristics of bipolar and unipolar depression - potential indicators of bipolarity.
        Psychiatr Danub. 2013; 25: 34-39
        • Nakamura K.
        • Iga J.
        • Matsumoto N.
        • et al.
        Risk of bipolar disorder and psychotic features in patients initially hospitalised with severe depression.
        Acta Neuropsychiatrica. 2015; 27: 113-118
        • Perlis R.H.
        • Brown E.
        • Baker R.W.
        • et al.
        Clinical features of bipolar depression versus major depressive disorder in large multicenter trials.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163: 225-231
        • Loftus J.
        • Scott J.
        • Vorspan F.
        • et al.
        Psychiatric comorbidities in bipolar disorders: an examination of the prevalence and chronology of onset according to sex and bipolar subtype. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't.
        J Affective Disord. 2020; 267: 258-263
        • McElroy S.L.
        • Altshuler L.L.
        • Suppes T.
        • et al.
        Axis I psychiatric comorbidity and its relationship to historical illness variables in 288 patients with bipolar disorder.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2001; 158: 420-426
        • Kessler R.C.
        • Chiu W.T.
        • Demler O.
        • et al.
        Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62: 617
        • Eisner L.R.
        • Johnson S.L.
        • Youngstrom E.A.
        • et al.
        Simplifying profiles of comorbidity in bipolar disorder.
        J Affective Disord. 2017; 220: 102-107
        • Berk M.
        • Dodd S.
        • Callaly P.
        • et al.
        History of illness prior to a diagnosis of bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder.
        J Affect Disord. 2007; 103: 181-186
        • McIntyre R.S.
        • Zimmerman M.
        • Goldberg J.F.
        • et al.
        Differential diagnosis of major depressive disorder versus bipolar disorder: current status and best clinical practices.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2019; 80https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.ot18043ah2
        • Kraepelin E.
        Manic-depressive insanity and paranoia. 1976. TbRMBi.
        Thoemmes Press, 1920
        • Judd L.L.
        • Akiskal H.S.
        • Schettler P.J.
        • et al.
        The long-term natural history of the weekly symptomatic status of bipolar I disorder.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002; 59: 530-537
        • Judd L.L.
        • Akiskal H.S.
        • Schettler P.J.
        • et al.
        A prospective investigation of the natural history of the long-term weekly symptomatic status of bipolar II disorder.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60: 261-269
        • Judd L.L.
        • Akiskal H.S.
        • Schettler P.J.
        • et al.
        Psychosocial disability in the course of bipolar I and II disorders: a prospective, comparative, longitudinal study.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62: 1322-1330
        • Coryell W.
        • Fiedorowicz J.
        • Solomon D.
        • et al.
        Age transitions in the course of bipolar I disorder.
        Psychol Med. 2009; 39: 1247-1252
        • Ketter T.A.
        • Houston J.P.
        • Adams D.H.
        • et al.
        Differential efficacy of olanzapine and lithium in preventing manic or mixed recurrence in patients with bipolar I disorder based on number of previous manic or mixed episodes.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2006; 67: 95-101
        • Tsai S.M.
        • Chen C.
        • Kuo C.
        • et al.
        15-year outcome of treated bipolar disorder.
        J Affect Disord. 2001; 63: 215-220
        • Etain B.
        • Bellivier F.
        • Olié E.
        • et al.
        Clinical predictors of recurrences in bipolar disorders type 1 and 2: a FACE-BD longitudinal study.
        J Psychiatr Res. 2021; 134: 129-137
        • Pacchiarotti I.
        • Bond D.J.
        • Baldessarini R.J.
        • et al.
        The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force report on antidepressant use in bipolar disorders.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2013; 170: 1249-1262
        • Schaffer A.
        • Isometsä E.T.
        • Tondo L.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: Part I of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on suicide in bipolar disorder.
        Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2015; 49: 785-802
        • Dennehy E.B.
        • Marangell L.B.
        • Allen M.H.
        • et al.
        Suicide and suicide attempts in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD).
        J Affect Disord. 2011; 133: 423-427
        • Schaffer A.
        • Isometsä E.T.
        • Tondo L.
        • et al.
        International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide: meta-analyses and meta-regression of correlates of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder.
        Bipolar Disord. 2015; 17: 1-16
        • Novick D.M.
        • Swartz H.A.
        • Frank E.
        Suicide attempts in bipolar I and bipolar II disorder: a review and meta-analysis of the evidence.
        Bipolar Disord. 2010; 12: 1-9
        • Weber A.N.
        • Michail M.
        • Thompson A.
        • et al.
        Psychiatric emergencies: assessing and managing suicidal ideation.
        Med Clin North Am. 2017; 101: 553-571
        • Kroenke K.
        • Spitzer R.L.
        • Williams J.B.
        The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2001; 16: 606-613
        • Posner K.
        • Brown G.K.
        • Stanley B.
        • et al.
        The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale: initial validity and internal consistency findings from three multisite studies with adolescents and adults.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2011; 168: 1266-1277
        • Fiedorowicz J.G.
        • Persons J.E.
        • Assari S.
        • et al.
        Depressive symptoms carry an increased risk for suicidal ideation and behavior in bipolar disorder without any additional contribution of mixed symptoms.
        J Affect Disord. 2019; 246: 775-782
        • Fiedorowicz J.G.
        • Persons J.E.
        • Assari S.
        • et al.
        Moderators of the association between depressive, manic, and mixed mood symptoms and suicidal ideation and behavior: an analysis of the National Network of Depression Centers Mood Outcomes Program.
        J Affect Disord. 2021; 281: 623-630
        • Persons J.E.
        • Coryell W.H.
        • Solomon D.A.
        • et al.
        Mixed state and suicide: Is the effect of mixed state on suicidal behavior more than the sum of its parts?.
        Bipolar Disord. 2018; 20: 35-41
        • Persons J.E.
        • Lodder P.
        • Coryell W.H.
        • et al.
        Symptoms of mania and anxiety do not contribute to suicidal ideation or behavior in the presence of bipolar depression.
        Psychiatry Res. 2022; 307: 114296
        • Altman S.
        • Haeri S.
        • Cohen L.J.
        • et al.
        Predictors of relapse in bipolar disorder: a review.
        J Psychiatr Practice®. 2006; 12: 269-282
        • Inder M.L.
        • Crowe M.T.
        • Porter R.
        Effect of transmeridian travel and jetlag on mood disorders: evidence and implications.
        Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016; 50: 220-227
        • Keitner G.I.
        • Solomon D.A.
        • Ryan C.E.
        • et al.
        Prodromal and residual symptoms in bipolar I disorder.
        Compr Psychiatry. 1996; 37: 362-367
        • Morriss R.
        The early warning symptom intervention for patients with bipolar affective disorder.
        Adv Psychiatr Treat. 2004; 10: 18-26
        • Sahoo M.K.
        • Chakrabarti S.
        • Kulhara P.
        Detection of prodromal symptoms of relapse in mania and unipolar depression by relatives and patients.
        Indian J Med Res. 2012; 135: 177-183
        • Smith J.A.
        • Tarrier N.
        Prodromal symptoms in manic depressive psychosis.
        Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1992; 27: 245-248
        • Perry A.
        • Tarrier N.
        • Morriss R.
        • et al.
        Randomised controlled trial of efficacy of teaching patients with bipolar disorder to identify early symptoms of relapse and obtain treatment.
        BMJ. 1999; 318: 149-153
        • Young M.A.
        • Grabler P.
        Rapidity of symptom onset in depression.
        Psychiatry Res. 1985; 16: 309-315
        • Yatham L.N.
        • Kennedy S.H.
        • Parikh S.V.
        • et al.
        Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) 2018 guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder.
        Bipolar Disord. 2018; 20: 97-170
        • Miklowitz D.J.
        • Efthimiou O.
        • Furukawa T.A.
        • et al.
        Adjunctive psychotherapy for bipolar disorder: a systematic review and component network meta-analysis.
        JAMA Psychiatry. 2021; 78: 141-150
        • Mohammad O.
        • Osser D.N.
        The psychopharmacology algorithm project at the Harvard South Shore Program: an algorithm for acute mania.
        Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2014; 22: 274-294
        • Wang D.
        • Osser D.N.
        The Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program: an update on bipolar depression.
        Bipolar Disord. 2020; 22: 472-489
        • Loo C.
        • Katalinic N.
        • Mitchell P.B.
        • et al.
        Physical treatments for bipolar disorder: A review of electroconvulsive therapy, stereotactic surgery and other brain stimulation techniques.
        J Affective Disord. 2011; 132: 1-13
        • Bahji A.
        • Hawken E.R.
        • Sepehry A.A.
        • et al.
        ECT beyond unipolar major depression: systematic review and meta-analysis of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression.
        Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2019; 139: 214-226
        • Angst J.
        • Angst K.
        • Baruffol I.
        • et al.
        ECT-induced and drug-induced hypomania.
        Convulsive therapy, 1992
        • Henry C.
        • Sorbara F.
        • Lacoste J.
        • et al.
        Antidepressant-induced mania in bipolar patients: identification of risk factors.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2001; 62: 911
        • Tee M.M.K.
        • Au C.H.
        A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized sham-controlled trials of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for bipolar disorder.
        Psychiatr Q. 2020; 91: 1225-1247
        • Lam R.W.
        • Teng M.Y.
        • Jung Y.E.
        • et al.
        Light therapy for patients with bipolar depression: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
        Can J Psychiatry. 2020; 65: 290-300
        • Konstantinou G.
        • Hui J.
        • Ortiz A.
        • et al.
        Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in bipolar disorder: a systematic review.
        Bipolar Disord. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1111/bdi.13099
        • Kilbourne A.M.
        • Copeland L.A.
        • Zeber J.E.
        • et al.
        Determinants of complementary and alternative medicine use by patients with bipolar disorder.
        Psychopharmacol Bull. 2007; 40: 104-115
        • Andreescu C.
        • Mulsant B.H.
        • Emanuel J.E.
        Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of bipolar disorder — a review of the evidence.
        J Affective Disord. 2008; 110: 16-26
        • Kisho T.
        • Sakuma K.
        • Okuya M.
        • et al.
        Omega-3 fatty acids for treating residual depressive symptoms in adult patients with bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trials.
        Bipolar Disord. 2021; 23: 730-731
        • Firth J.
        • Teasdale S.B.
        • Allott K.
        • et al.
        The efficacy and safety of nutrient supplements in the treatment of mental disorders: a meta-review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.
        World Psychiatry. 2019; 18: 308-324
        • Duffy A.
        The early course of bipolar disorder in youth at familial risk.
        J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009; 18: 200-205
        • Grande I.
        • Berk M.
        • Birmaher B.
        • et al.
        Bipolar disorder.
        Lancet. 2016; 387: 1561-1572
        • Subramaniam H.
        • Dennis M.S.
        • Byrne E.J.
        The role of vascular risk factors in late onset bipolar disorder.
        Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007; 22: 733-737
        • Young R.C.
        • Mulsant B.H.
        • Sajatovic M.
        • et al.
        GERI-BD: a randomized double-blind controlled trial of lithium and divalproex in the treatment of mania in older patients with bipolar disorder.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2017; 174: 1086-1093
        • Wesseloo R.
        • Kamperman A.M.
        • Munk-Olsen T.
        • et al.
        Risk of postpartum relapse in bipolar disorder and postpartum psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2016; 173: 117-127
        • Salim M.
        • Sharma V.
        • Anderson K.K.
        Recurrence of bipolar disorder during pregnancy: a systematic review.
        Arch Womens Ment Health. 2018; 21: 475-479
        • Fornaro M.
        • Maritan E.
        • Ferranti R.
        • et al.
        Lithium exposure during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a systematic review and meta-analysis of safety and efficacy outcomes.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2020; 177: 76-92
        • Epstein R.A.
        • Moore K.M.
        • Bobo W.V.
        Treatment of bipolar disorders during pregnancy: maternal and fetal safety and challenges.
        Drug Healthc Patient Saf. 2015; 7: 7-29
        • Bergink V.
        • Burgerhout K.M.
        • Koorengevel K.M.
        • et al.
        Treatment of psychosis and mania in the postpartum period.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2015; 172: 115-123
        • Sharma V.
        • Bergink V.
        • Berk M.
        • et al.
        Childbirth and prevention of bipolar disorder: an opportunity for change.
        Lancet Psychiatry. 2019; 6: 786-792
        • Khan S.J.
        • Fersh M.E.
        • Ernst C.
        • et al.
        Bipolar disorder in pregnancy and postpartum: principles of management.
        Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2016; 18: 13
        • Harding K.J.
        • Rush A.J.
        • Arbuckle M.
        • et al.
        Measurement-based care in psychiatric practice: a policy framework for implementation.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2011; 72: 1136-1143
        • Cerimele J.M.
        • Goldberg S.B.
        • Miller C.J.
        • et al.
        Systematic review of symptom assessment measures for use in measurement-based care of bipolar disorders.
        Psychiatr Serv. 2019; 70: 396-408
        • Davidson J.
        • Turnbull C.D.
        • Strickland R.
        • et al.
        The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale: reliability and validity.
        Acta Psychiatrica Scand. 1986; 73: 544-548
        • Cerimele J.M.
        • Russo J.
        • Bauer A.M.
        • et al.
        The Patient Mania Questionnaire (PMQ-9): a brief scale for assessing and monitoring manic symptoms.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-021-06947-7
        • Torres I.J.
        • Boudreau V.G.
        • Yatham L.N.
        Neuropsychological functioning in euthymic bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis.
        Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2007; : 17-26
        • Lima F.
        • Rabelo-da-Ponte F.D.
        • Bucker J.
        • et al.
        Identifying cognitive subgroups in bipolar disorder: a cluster analysis.
        J Affect Disord. 2019; 246: 252-261
        • Jensen J.H.
        • Knorr U.
        • Vinberg M.
        • et al.
        Discrete neurocognitive subgroups in fully or partially remitted bipolar disorder: associations with functional abilities.
        J Affect Disord. 2016; 205: 378-386
        • Chakrabarty T.
        • Torres I.J.
        • Su W.W.
        • et al.
        Cognitive subgroups in first episode bipolar I disorder: Relation to clinical and brain volumetric variables.
        Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2021; 143: 151-161
        • Burdick K.E.
        • Russo M.
        • Frangou S.
        • et al.
        Empirical evidence for discrete neurocognitive subgroups in bipolar disorder: clinical implications.
        Psychol Med. 2014; 44: 3083-3096
        • Miskowiak K.W.
        • Burdick K.E.
        • Martinez-Aran A.
        • et al.
        Assessing and addressing cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder: the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force recommendations for clinicians.
        Bipolar Disord. 2018; 20: 184-194
        • Judd L.L.
        • Schettler P.J.
        • Solomon D.A.
        • et al.
        Psychosocial disability and work role function compared across the long-term course of bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar major depressive disorders.
        J affective Disord. 2008; 108: 49-58
        • Judd L.L.
        • Akiskal H.S.
        • Schettler P.J.
        • et al.
        The comparative clinical phenotype and long term longitudinal episode course of bipolar I and II: a clinical spectrum or distinct disorders?.
        J affective Disord. 2003; 73: 19-32
      1. Pallaskorpi S, Suominen K, Ketokivi M, et al. Incidence and predictors of suicide attempts in bipolar I and II disorders: a 5-year follow-up study. Bipolar Disord. 2017;19(1):13-22.

        • King S.
        • Stone J.M.
        • Cleare A.
        • et al.
        A systematic review on neuropsychological function in bipolar disorders type I and II and subthreshold bipolar disorders—something to think about.
        CNS Spectrums. 2019; 24: 127-143
        • Joslyn C.
        • Hawes D.J.
        • Hunt C.
        • et al.
        Is age of onset associated with severity, prognosis, and clinical features in bipolar disorder? A meta-analytic review.
        Bipolar Disord. 2016; 18: 389-403
        • Yapıcı Eser H.
        • Taşkıran A.S.
        • Ertınmaz B.
        • et al.
        Anxiety disorders comorbidity in pediatric bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis and meta-regression study.
        Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2020; 141: 327-339
        • Cirone C.
        • Secci I.
        • Favole I.
        • et al.
        What do we know about the long-term course of early onset bipolar disorder? A review of the current evidence.
        Brain Sci. 2021; 11https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030341
        • Tozzi F.
        • Manchia M.
        • Galwey N.W.
        • et al.
        Admixture analysis of age at onset in bipolar disorder.
        Psychiatry Res. 2011; 185: 27-32
        • Coryell W.
        • Fiedorowicz J.
        • Leon A.C.
        • et al.
        Age of onset and the prospectively observed course of illness in bipolar disorder.
        J affective Disord. 2013; 146: 34-38
        • Coryell W.
        • Solomon D.A.
        • Fiedorowicz J.G.
        • et al.
        Anxiety and outcome in bipolar disorder.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2009; 166: 1238-1243
        • Otto M.W.
        • Simon N.M.
        • Wisniewski S.R.
        • et al.
        Prospective 12-month course of bipolar disorder in out-patients with and without comorbid anxiety disorders.
        Br J Psychiatry. 2006; 189: 20-25
        • Mazza M.
        • Mandelli L.
        • Di Nicola M.
        • et al.
        Clinical features, response to treatment and functional outcome of bipolar disorder patients with and without co-occurring substance use disorder: 1-year follow-up.
        J Affect Disord. 2009; 115: 27-35
        • Baethge C.
        • Baldessarini R.J.
        • Khalsa H.M.
        • et al.
        Substance abuse in first-episode bipolar I disorder: indications for early intervention.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162: 1008-1010
        • Strakowski S.M.
        • Keck P.E.
        • McElroy S.L.
        • et al.
        Twelve-month outcome after a first hospitalization for affective psychosis.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998; 55: 49-55
        • Perlis R.H.
        • Delbello M.P.
        • Miyahara S.
        • et al.
        Revisiting depressive-prone bipolar disorder: polarity of initial mood episode and disease course among bipolar I systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder participants.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2005; 58: 549-553
        • Treuer T.
        • Tohen M.
        Predicting the course and outcome of bipolar disorder: a review.
        Eur Psychiatry. 2010; 25: 328-333
        • Farias C.A.
        • Cardoso T.A.
        • Mondin T.C.
        • et al.
        Clinical outcomes and childhood trauma in bipolar disorder: a community sample of young adults. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't.
        Psychiatry Res. 2019; 275: 228-232
        • Post R.M.
        • Altshuler L.L.
        • Kupka R.
        • et al.
        Double jeopardy in the United States: early onset bipolar disorder and treatment delay.
        Psychiatry Res. 2020; 292: 113274
        • Stahl S.
        G Meghan M. Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology Prescriber's guide. Cambridge University Press, New York2014
        • Kishi T.
        • Ikuta T.
        • Matsuda Y.
        • et al.
        Pharmacological treatment for bipolar mania: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials.
        Mol Psychiatry. 2021; : 1-9
        • Miura T.
        • Noma H.
        • Furukawa T.A.
        • et al.
        Comparative efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological treatments in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
        Lancet Psychiatry. 2014; 1: 351-359
        • Kadakia A.
        • Dembek C.
        • Heller V.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and tolerability of atypical antipsychotics for acute bipolar depression: a network meta-analysis.
        BMC Psychiatry. 2021; 21: 1-16
        • Kishi T.
        • Ikuta T.
        • Matsuda Y.
        • et al.
        Mood stabilizers and/or antipsychotics for bipolar disorder in the maintenance phase: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
        Mol Psychiatry. 2021; 26: 4146-4157
        • Bahji A.
        • Ermacora D.
        • Stephenson C.
        • et al.
        Comparative efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological treatments for the treatment of acute bipolar depression: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
        J affective Disord. 2020; 269: 154-184