- Zoorob R.J.
- Cambell J.S.
- Kunitoh H.
- Wantanabe K.
- Sajima Y.
Abdominal or chest mass
Asthma, emphysema, bronchitis
Interstitial fibrosis of any cause
Left ventricular failure
Obstruction to airflow, central or peripheral
Resistance to expansion of the chest wall or diaphragm
Resistance to expansion of the lung
Thoracic burn with eschar formation
Tracheal or laryngeal stenosis
Mechanical interference with ventilation
Weakness of the respiratory pump
Decreased cardiac output
Decreased effective hemoglobin
Hypoxemia of any cause
Stimulation of intrapulmonary receptors
Increased respiratory drive
Bodily preoccupation, somatization disorder
Secondary gain, malingering
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